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What Is Personal Interest

What Is Personal Interest

Personal interest refers to the sum of various needs for individual survival and
development.

Personal interests are the satisfaction of their material and spiritual needs. Own interests generally include three aspects:

  • The happiness of survival needs
  • The joy of development needs
  • The comfort of enjoyment needs

Survival needs are the needs of individuals and their families to maintain their existence and continue their future generations.

Development needs are the needs for the development and improvement of the individual's ideology, intelligence, and physical strength. The need to enjoy is the need for people to improve their quality of life.

Constraints on personal interests


Various factors constrain their interests. The level of social productivity determines the social material wealth and spiritual wealth as a whole.

Material wealth and spiritual wealth are the objects of individual needs, and the amount of material wealth and spiritual wealth restricts the realization of personal interests in general.

Secondly, the role of individuals in society's restricted interests. The difference in a
person's status and role in society determines the difference in the way, quality, and
quantity of his benefits.

For example, if the ruling class occupies a dominant position in the community, they can use their power to squeeze the labor and sweat of the laborers to hold a large amount of material and cultural wealth freely.

However, under the exploitation system, the majority of laborers are in a position of being exploited and oppressed. They obtain a small number of living materials by selling labor.

Public interest and personal interest

Public interest and individual interest are dialectically unified, which means that on the one hand, there is no fundamental conflict between public interest and particular
interest.

Usually, everything that benefits the public is also suitable for individuals, and
vice versa. When individual rights cannot guarantee space-time talk and obedience to the public interest, it can only fall into fantasy and despair.

Only based on fully respecting the rights of individuals, the boundaries of public affairs can be reasonably delineated. Ultimately, personal interests and public interests cancel each other out and cannot be achieved.

On the other hand, there are inevitably some contradictions between personal interests and public interests, because each individual's interests affect others and society through his actions.

As the most significant public interest, the total amount of social resources is limited, and the contradiction between personal interests and public interests is inevitable.

Even so, "it should be avoided to confront" society "as abstract things against individuals,"

Because the purpose of protecting the public interest is only to limit the personal interest moderately, it never denies personal interests and personal rights.

Montesquieu believes that if "individual private interests should concession to public interests," it is "absurd theory." "Because public interests are always: everyone keeps the property given by civil law forever."

The dialectical and unified relationship between public interest and personal interest has been fully expounded in Marxist theory. "As a general, universal, and common social
interest, it is embodied as an individual, special and individual characteristic.

Among the personal interests, personal interests reflect the requirements of social interests, which are the performance of social interests in individual individuals and are constrained by social interests.

Social interests are general, relative reflected in personal interests Stable and repetitive things are the most powerful basis of human interests. Social interests are not simply in personal interests but are realized in different forms and with different strengths by means of personal interests."

Identity of public interest and personal interest

Identity of public interest and personal interest


Public interest and personal interest should be consistent and the same. Only when the
public interest is effectively safeguarded and guaranteed can personal interests be the
the basis for realization.

If personal interests are not guaranteed and satisfied, it will also jeopardize the realization of public interests. Emphasizing only the public interest, while ignoring the existence and rationality of other interests, when the basic personal interests and role interests are not guaranteed and satisfied, the public interests are not only difficult to realize, and even suffer huge losses due to individuals seeking abnormal interests.

Public management only pursues public interests, and then requires that each
specific subject of public management only pursues public interests. In most cases, it is
unrealistic.

This way of thinking is based on the simple opposition between private interests and public interests. The interdependence and interrelation between personal interests and public interests. The identity of public interest and personal interest is
mainly manifested in two aspects:

  • Personal interests transformed into public interests-


As a common interest of members of society, the public interest is separated from
individual interests and becomes an independent interest. This transformation has gone
through a long period of development.

At first, it was based on a blood relationship; later, it was based on the regional relationship; and finally, it was based on political relationships.

As Marx and Engels pointed out, it is precise because of this contradiction between private interests and public interests that public interests take a form of independence from the actual interests (whether single or common) in the attitude of the state, That is to say, to take the form of an illusory community.

However, this has always occurred on the basis of the existing physical and corporal connections, language connections, larger-scale division of labor connections, and other stakes in each family or tribal GroupGroup, especially on the basis of the interests of all classes. However, as the general representative of the public interest subject, it is only an abstract personality subject, and cannot really digest the public interest. Eventually, it still needs to be distributed to members of society to enjoy.

From personal interest to public interest, and then from public interest to personal interest, a cycle of interest transformation is completed.

Through this process of benefit transformation, social justice is achieved or achieved, that is, members of the society basically occupy the benefits on an equal basis, and the disparity between the rich and the poor in the society is reduced.

China has always advocated that public interest is better than personal interest, and
personal interest should obey public interest.

However, under the current market economic system, whether public interests always take priority over personal interests is debatable in our opinion.

From the perspective of public interest, it has a close relationship with civil society. According to the view of the natural law school, before entering a civilized society, human beings lived in a natural state. In the natural state, without the state, government, and laws, everyone chases their own private interestslife is poor, and the relationship is cruel.

The defects of the natural state make people transfer some of their rights and interests through social contracts, establish public power, and maintain public interests and order. Therefore, the public interest is separated from personal interest and is transformed from personal interest.

Without personal interests, there is no public interest. Although public interest exists in personal interests, it is not a simple sum of personal interests.

This sum not only filters out the factors of arbitrariness, chance, and particularity in personal interests but also synthesizes and amplifies the components of rationality, inevitability, and universality so that a general and reasonable interest can be generated and continued.

Only this kind of universal and reasonable interest can qualify as the goal of collective behavior and the basis of the moral value of individual behavior.

  • Public interest transformed into a personal interest

The public interest stems from personal interests and is based on personal interests. As a holistic interest, the public interest is enjoyed by every member of society and is not
monopolized by one person or class of people.

Since the realization of public interest creates conditions for the full realization of personal interests, its realization must also be implemented in the realization of the personal interests of all members of society.


Therefore, public interest has become the common belief and collective choice of modern society. By no means does it mean that we can ignore or ignore our personal interests.

Public interest is priority based on fully respecting and protecting personal interests
because society is a human society, individuals are the basic constitution of society, and
individual interests are the source and basis of any holistic interests.

That kind of public interest with no background and no premises does not exist at all, let alone priority issues.

Historical experience shows that defending the so-called public interests by
denying personal interests is often an excuse for the minority power class to seek
personal interests and a shield to cover up its abuse of power.

  • The opposition between public interest and personal interest

The opposition between public interest and personal interest refers to the movement and trend of their divorce, differentiation, and restriction. Although the public interest and
the individual interest is the same, there are differences after all.

Once the interest separated from the individual interest becomes a public interest, it is relatively independent, so it cannot be the exclusive interest of a member of society. 

Every member of society always opposes the separation of public interest from his own personal interests, and always hopes to get a share of the public interest.

That is to say, "Each an individual is pursuing only his own, special, and for them is an interest that is inconsistent with their common interests (a common thing is originally a form of imaginary community), so they think that this kind of common interest is 'alien' and 'does not depend on' them.

On the other hand, these special interests are always opposed to the imaginary common interests, and the actual struggle of these special interests makes the illusory appearance in the state's attitude. The general 'interests must interfere with and restrain special interests."

In this way, the opposition between public interest and personal interest is formed. The opposition between public interest and personal interest is universal.

It exists not only between the ruling class as the main occupier of the public interest and the members of the ruled class who have difficulty in enjoying the public interest but also between the entire ruling class and the members of the ruling class not only in the capitalist society but also exists in a socialist society.

Mao Zedong pointed out, "Our people's government is a government that truly represents the interests of the people and serves the people, but it also has certain contradictions with the people. This contradiction includes the conflicts between national interests, collective interests, and individual interests. contradiction."

In the article "German Ideology", Marx and Engels profoundly pointed out that as long as the external social division of labor still exists, the consciousness of products and people has not been greatly improved, and the confrontation and struggle between public
interests and personal interests will always exist. It can only be eliminated in a communist society.

Where public groups are large and include a large number of individuals, everyone has an intention to avoid performing their duties. Aristotle pointed this out very early.

He believes that "all public things that belong to the majority are often the things that are least cared for. People care about their own and ignore public things everything about the public.

At most, he only pays attention to things that are somewhat related to him." This is because no matter what one does, it will not seriously affect the total production.

He regards the collective actions of others as being determined in some way. Understand If the public interest has been produced, then his enjoyment of this interest will not be
reduced because he has not contributed.

If the public interest is not produced, then his behavior cannot change this situation in any way. This is the 'logic of collective action ', which is actually "the dilemma of collective action." That is, "Unless there are a small number of people in a group, or unless there is coercion or some other special means to enable individuals to act in accordance with their common interests, rational, self-interested individuals will not take action to achieve their common or GroupGroup interests."

In other words, even if all individuals in a large group are rational and seeking self-interest, and as a group, they can all benefit from taking action to achieve common
interests or goals, they will still not be willing to consciously Take action to realize
common or GroupGroup interests.


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